The first ever evidence of an exoplanet was taken during World War One, it has emerged, decades before their existence was confirmed.
Dutch-American astronomer Adriaan van Maanen took a series of spectra images of the light emitted by different stars in 1917, in which he discovered a white dwarf – which is a dead star.
The images were recorded on glass photographic plates at California’s Carnegie Observatories, but filed and forgotten.
At the time, no-one realised that the image also showed evidence of one or more exoplanets – worlds orbiting a star other than our Sun.
It had been previously thought that the first detection of exoplanet evidence was made in 1992.
The tag that accompanied the slide in the vaults
The chance discovery of the 1917 slide’s significance was only made after Jay Farihi, from University College London, recently contacted the Carnegie Institution for Science.
He wanted the glass plate showing the white dwarf – named van Maanen 2 – as part of a study of planetary systems surrounding such stars.
On examining the spectrum, he found clues which showed that the white dwarf was “polluted”, meaning that it likely has the rocky remnants of a planet or planets orbiting it.
Observatories’ director John Mulchaey said: “The unexpected realisation that this 1917 plate from our archive contains the earliest recorded evidence of a polluted white dwarf system is just incredible.
“We have a tonne of history sitting in our basement and who knows what other finds we might unearth in the future?
“The mechanism that creates the rings of planetary debris, and the deposition onto the stellar atmosphere, requires the gravitational influence of full-fledged planets.
“The process couldn’t occur unless there were planets there.”
Despite their hefty price tag, smartphones have an average consumer lifetime of about three years. The lithium ion batteries that power them, however, can last for about five years—meaning that just about every discarded smartphone generates e-waste and squanders the battery’s twilight years. To cut down on the environmental waste and provide storage for rural communities, researchers at Kyung Hee University in Seoul have proposed a model for recycling unspent lithium ion batteries into energy storage units for solar-powered LED lamps.
Boucar Diouf, a professor in the Department of Information Display at Kyung Hee University in Seoul, describes the logistics of his recycling and repurposing program this week in the Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, from AIP Publishing.
The proposed program consists of five general steps—battery collection, testing and selection, system manufacturing, commercialization, and installation. Each of these steps would provide opportunities for job creation, Diouf said.
The candle and kerosene lamps used to light the homes within many rural communities are harmful, inefficient and more expensive than a small solar home lighting system, provided the right approach is taken, explained Diouf. “Using the battery of mobile phones in small solar home systems becomes obvious in order to make access to electricity easier to those who live without.”
Batteries are one of the more expensive components of a solar home system and contribute significantly to the cost barrier of decent lighting systems in rural communities. Old car batteries, which are lead-acid based, are commonly used storage units in improvised systems, but don’t have a very good lifespan.
A standard lithium ion phone battery of 1000 milliamp-hour capacity can power a one-watt LED lamp for about three hours, or a 0.5-watt lamp—bright enough for reading and writing—for about six hours. When wired to a small solar panel, this maintenance-free system can last for approximately three years.
The researchers also constructed a full 12-volt system made of three mobile phone batteries of 3100 millliamp-hour capacity each, with a 5-watt LED lamp and a small solar panel, for less than $25. These systems have the capability to light up a room for about five hours each day, and can last for approximately three years without any maintenance.
Future work for Diouf and his colleagues in the field involves setting up battery collection and e-waste recycling systems, as well as contributing to reducing the cost of solar systems for rural populations of developing countries. He plans to start pilot projects in Senegal and sub-Saharan African countries within the next year.
The FBI has successfully accessed data stored on an iPhone belonging to one of the San Bernardino attackers.
As a result, the Justice Department has asked a court to withdraw an order compelling Apple to help access the phone, which is thought contain evidence relating to the massacre in December that killed 14 people.
Syed Farook and his wife Tashfeen Malik also wounded 22 others, before they were later killed in a gun battle with police.
US attorney Eileen Decker said in a statement: “Our decision to conclude the litigation was based solely on the fact that, with the recent assistance of a third party, we are now able to unlock that iPhone without compromising any information on the phone.”
Ms Decker added the government’s request was part of its “solemn commitment” to the victims of the attack, America’s worst since 9/11.
“Although this step in the investigation is now complete, we will continue to explore every lead, and seek any appropriate legal process, to ensure our investigation collects all of the evidence related to this terrorist attack,” she said.
It is unclear who helped the FBI access the phone and what was stored on the device.
The FBI said last week it may have found a way to break into Farook’s iPhone without Apple’s help.
Federal prosecutors said “an outside party” had come forward with a possible method for unlocking the encrypted phone.
The US government had obtained a court order requiring Apple to write new software to disable passcode protectors, which they can use on the phone.
But Apple fought the order, warning that the software could fall into the hands of hackers and threaten the security of all encrypted devices. The company has yet to comment on this latest development.
It said the demand violated its constitutional rights, would harm its brand and threaten the trust of its customers to protect their privacy.
In a statement, Apple said: “From the beginning, we objected to the FBI’s demand that Apple build a backdoor into the iPhone because we believed it was wrong and would set a dangerous precedent.
“As a result of the government’s dismissal, neither of these occurred. This case should never had been brought.
“We will continue to help law enforcement with their investigations, as we have done all along, and we will continue to increase the security of our products as the threats and attacks on our data become more frequent and more sophisticated.
“Apple believes deeply that people in the United States and around the world deserve data protection, security and privacy. Sacrificing one for the other only puts people and countries at greater risk.”
Numerous tech giants including Google, Facebook, Microsoft and Yahoo, publicly backed Apple, alongside civil liberties groups and privacy advocates.
IDC Asia/Pacific expects APeJ IT Services to be resilient – posting a 6.5% value growth year-on-year (YoY) (in US dollar) in 2016. The IT services market faced difficulties this year due to the depreciation of Asian currencies against the US dollar and the slowdown in China economy. Despite this, IDC believes APeJ IT services will remain positive next year with digital transformation and smart city initiatives driving demand for IT services.
Representational image: Reuters
“Demand is primarily being driven by digital transformation initiatives across verticals, particularly banking, retail and public sectors. Enterprises are increasingly leveraging 3rd platform technologies to build a cohesive digital agenda that focuses on achieving business outcomes. Smart City initiatives in countries such as China, India and Singapore have also fueled the demand for cloud, analytics, mobility and security solutions”, said Vidhika Sehgal , Senior Research Manager, Services, and IDC Asia/Pacific.
China, which has the largest IT services spend in APeJ, is expected to close the year with 9.4% YOY value growth in US dollar. Though historically known to have double digit growth, current estimates of 9.4% is still one of the highest growth markets in the region. In 2015, China saw the continued struggle of foreign players in the domestic market due to regulatory policies while local vendors witnessed a tapering in growth due to slower domestic demand.
“While exchange rate volatility can have a large impact on US dollar growth forecast in 2016, it is expected that growth in local currency will pick up in markets such as India and ASEAN, which should also contribute to an overall revival in APeJ IT services growth” adds Sehgal.
Within IT services segments, the market is being driven by growth in IT consulting, systems integration and hosting infrastructure service, mainly because of an increased migration to cloud. These three segments together contribute nearly 30% to APeJ IT services market. Consulting and integration services are in demand as companies look for third party services for identifying and implementing 3rd platform solutions to migrate legacy systems and also complement the existing IT architecture and contribute to business outcomes.
Growth in traditional outsourcing services continue to be adversely impacted by the shift to cloud, especially as deal size, duration and structure moves in favor of a more hybrid IT environment.
Conceived decades ago as the way forward for manufacturers who sought to harness technology to better plan business operations, ERP has been used to patch up disparate systems and processes to provide an integrated information flow to an organization. With technological advances and the explosive growth of companies like Amazon – online to offline, e-commerce, real time delivery, and drones – the logistics and supply chain industry of the new era needs entirely new levels of speed, accuracy, efficiency and cohesion from its ERP systems and other solutions that they use for driving business.
The traditional model of patchwork for disparate systems, along with the legacy roots in manufacturing, leaves these logistics and supply chain companies with a software that does not cover their operations comprehensively, creating gaps in vital functions. While a traditional ERP has tried to meet warehousing needs, integrating stacking and racking; companies are now demanding much higher levels of precision, real-time tracking and response systems, to manage the highly dynamic requirements of the modern supply chain business.
The nature of modern business, thus, makes it imperative for ERP vendors, and businesses as well, to think of ERP in a totally new context. There needs to be a fundamental shift in the way in which ERP usage is viewed, from a system of records to a system of insights and action. This system must gel with the usage patterns of new generation application users, who are tuned highly into social media. This system must, at the same time, provide high-level automation of routine functions, enabling all levels of user hierarchy manage by exception and ensuring quality time for users, to focus on strategy and innovations.
Logistics and technological advances such as Near-Field Communication (NFC), GPS, QR Codes, RFID tags and sensors have to be utilised and integrated with the ERP applications, in order to automate inventory transactions and maximise warehouse space and inventory. Store transactions getting completed in a jiffy, through a couple of scans of QR Codes have been in the mainstream for some time now. GPS enabled tracking of consignments and the ability to visualize real-time status through Google Maps, has brought tremendous benefits to many businesses, already. By using trend analysis through integrated data analytics, one can efficiently arrange warehouse space, ensuring high-traffic items are placed near loading doors, for quick movement. Additionally, in order to forecast demand and plan inventory effectively, one can leverage multi-agent based technology for real-time scheduling, Route Planning and Load Optimization and Inventory Forecasting. This will in turn increase the processing capacity, drastically, ensuring faster and smarter decisions. Also, Big data analytics using the terra bytes of data made available through Internet of Things is the other huge area both supply chain companies and the ERP vendors must focus together on.
Mobility solutions are now key for any organization. Smartphones are no longer news, they are a necessity. The smartphone penetration is increasing by leaps and bounds, globally. In a business context, there is always a need to be connected to the latest information, in order to make the best decisions. Being able to manage operations via smart devices gives flexibility and places critical information within reach, allowing thorough evaluations during any situation. Overseeing and managing the supply chain by walking around is no longer impossible, it is now mandatory for business success. Any ERP that lets a user carry out his or her day-to-day work through a mobile device – take customer orders, track statuses of an invoice, authorize a document, apply for leave – is bound to have a legion of fans in an organization.
Companies need to gain a competitive edge in today’s market. Ensuring that processes run at optimum levels is not enough. An organization must be able to make accurate, instantaneous changes and decisions. Real-time tracking of warehouse utilisation, supply chain movements and inventory status is now necessary for warehouse workers and top management to make decisions.
All this being said, user-friendliness is still key to determining whether an ERP is properly utilised. If the ordinary logistics worker is unwilling or unable to use the ERP, the system will lack necessary critical information. It is just as important to have an intuitive interface that can be used by everyone from upper management to workers, on the warehouse floor. Building on the new need for analytics, ERP software should also be context-aware. As businesses grow and shrink with the market, their internal functions have to adjust, accordingly. Having this foresight can make the difference between a successful or failed implementation.
As technology advances, and newer business models appear on the horizon, ERP solutions need to not only catch up and stay in tune with the technology trends, but also be agile enough to mould themselves into the ever evolving business models, to fit the needs of the various industries they serve. No longer can traditional ERP platforms shoehorn other business segments into legacy systems. ERP must be redesigned so that it can break away from its legacy manufacturing roots and create a platform to deliver and serve the needs of many.
USB Type-C (or USB-C) had its coming-out party quite late—at this year’s CES in early January, even though the connection type made its broad debut with Apple’s 12-inch MacBook in April 2015. Since then, more devices have adopted the format, such as the Chrome Pixel C and Nexus 6P. (The new Apple TV has a USB-C port but only as a connection option for debugging and making screen captures with a Mac.) An ocean of USB-C devices is coming that will include more Macs as part of the Thunderbolt 3 update—which relies on that connector style—and possibly some iOS hardware.
I’ve been waiting to test USB portable batteries equipped with USB-C since theMacBook shipped. But as long as Apple relied on the MagSafe connector, you couldn’t get a licensed and certified adapter that would work with a Mac laptop. USB-C changes that altogether. It has bi-drectional power support, allowing energy to flow from a laptop or other controller’s USB-C to charge or power external devices and via USB-C to charge a MacBook or similar device’s internalbattery.
In general, USB battery packs used to have limited capacity, offer slow charging of devices and recharge slowly, and cost and weigh a lot relative to the benefit they offer. But they’ve matured very rapidly over the last few years. With the very large-scale manufacture of standard-sized rechargeable lithium-ion battery cells, electronics makers have created affordable, high-capacity USB packs that range from recharging your iPhone 6s by about 50 percent up to the equivalent of a week’s worth of multiple full recharges of a set of iPads and iPhones.
Laptops have typically been in a different category, because they not only have large batteries, but when in use, they draw power faster than previous USB packs typically provide it because of limitation in the previous generation of USB connector and cable standards. In such a case, a Mac laptop pulls juice from the USB-connected battery, but also gradually runs down its internal one.
The iPad Pro suffers from this problem. It ships with a 12-watt power adapter that can’t always keep up with power consumed while you’re using the iPad Pro. While its battery could safely be charged at a much higher wattage (at least twice as “fast” in terms of power flow), the Lightning standard appears to limit its maximum rate.
USB-C breaks through that limit by allowing higher-amperage charging even though USB has a set limit on voltage. (Wattage is the product of amps times volts, representing the total energy transferred.) This higher amperage can allow a USB battery pack to recharge a 12-inch MacBook relatively speedy when put to sleep, although the units I tested still can’t keep up with its power consumption.
OS X requires changes to better recognize the kind of external device providing charge, rather than treating them as a “power adapter” as the MacBook did for all the batteries tested.
USB-C’s higher rate of power flow lets some of the batteries I tested recharge rapidly, although you need to find a high-wattage USB adapter to make that work as well—none ship with such an adapter. (One pack can use Qualcomm’s Quick Charge 2.0 technology, which boosts voltage for faster charger when used with a USB power adapter with the same tech.)
Being able to bring a relatively lightweight battery (half a pound to a pound) that carries a partial or full additional MacBook charge or could partly recharge aMacBook and handle an iPhone and iPad (some charging three devices simultaneously) can make extended travel away from electricity very practical. This can especially include long-haul flights where onboard power isn’t available or that power isn’t enough to charge devices fully. You would no longer have to camp at an outlet or leave hardware in a vulnerable place to charge via AC.
In this roundup, I look at four USB packs that feature a USB-C port for charging; some can also recharge through the port. These models appeared on the market starting in fourth quarter 2015, and three are from companies with good track records on electronics, cables, or batteries. (The fourth is less known, but itsbattery tested very well.) I tasked them to discharge and recharge on their own, and replenish a USB-C MacBook.
Juice it up
Unlike the fancy design-to-purpose batteries you’ll find inside Apple products, every USB battery pack I’m aware of uses cells purchased from a battery-making firm. Apple and other companies mold or terrace lithium-ion (Li-ion) polymer batteries to fit every nook and cranny. Mass-produced cells, however, are typically round, like normal alkaline and rechargeable consumer batteries, although they are often much larger.
While some small packs use flat arrangement to stay compact—such as Amazon’s super-cheap $6 Micro-USB Portable Power Bank—larger USB packs like the ones I tested rely on standard cylindrical cells and package them with the circuitry, heat dissipation, and connectors needed to move power in and out.
If you’re not familiar with power basics, here are just a few. The simplest way to discuss electrical power is in units of volts (V), amperes or amps (A), and watts (W). These can be compared to water pipes and water flow. Voltage is pressure, or the amount of water in a given space; amperage is pipe diameter, which has an impact on pressure. Low-amperage (a small diameter pipe) requires high voltage (lots of pressure) to move the same amount of power as a high-amperage (big diameter pipe) with low pressure (low voltage). Wattage is the product of amps and volts, describing the power (the “work”) passing through the system.
Now, with batteries and battery packs, we want to describe how much capacitythey have—how much power they can store and then provide to other hardware. That’s measured in milliampere-hours, abbreviated mAh, which you’ve probably seen repeatedly and wondered precisely what it meant. That number can be confusing because it also requires a voltage, something you rarely see listed. The batteries used in power packs typically discharge at about 3.6V or 3.7V and charge at 4.2V. (Lithium-ion cells, used for all the packs I tested, charge best at about that rate.)
So when you see that a battery pack has 10,000 mAh, that’s 10,000 mAh available at 3.6V. USB, however, is 5V, while smartphone batteries used in iOS devices discharge at about 3.8V (and charge around 4.3V or 4.4V). This requires converting voltage to figure out the idealized capacity. Because these voltages are so similar, you can mostly ignore that; it mostly matters with higher-voltage device batteries. (A similar measure, watt-hours (Wh), avoids this conversion, but because it’s not consistently used, it’s harder to find it for comparison.)
As an example, the iPhone 6s battery has 1,715 mAh of capacity. That should mean that a 10,000 mAh USB battery can recharge it about 5.5 times. (For comparison, the iPad Air has a 7,340 mAh and the iPad Pro a 10,307 mAh one.) The single-port MacBook is a trickier case, because its internal battery is 5,263 mAh but at 7.55V. If you do the math, 3.6 divided by 7.55 gets you the factor to multiply against the battery pack’s pack—roughly 50 percent or about 5,000 mAh. So you should be able to charge a MacBook from 0 to 100 percent almost twice with such a pack, right?
But that omits three other factors! Bear with me, as these are easier to explain:
Because power has to be converted among voltages to work over USB, both in the source battery and in the destination device, there’s always some loss. This is why you feel heat when batteries charge or discharge, as heat is wasted energy. (Some of the devices I tested seem to get noticeably hotter than others.)
Lithium-ion batteries can’t be taken down entirely to zero percent. As a spokesperson at Anker, the maker of many batteries and one best one we tested, conveyed from its engineers, “If the battery power is discharged to zero it will adversely affect the durability of the battery cell.” So even when seemingly exhausting a USB battery pack, its circuitry prevents it from tapping out.
Li-ion batteries also degrade over time and have a risk of expansion or even fires if they’re overcharged or charged too close to full too fast. (For reference, see all the Hoverboard fire videos from this last fall.) USB packs can charge rapidly at first, but as batteries approach full, they slow down, and stop short of 100 percent—sometimes far short in my testing.
To sum up? Batteries can’t give up their last ergs of juice, can’t be charged to 100 percent (and you never know quite how close), and lose power in converting over USB and back. This adds up.
In my testing, the best of the two highest-capacity batteries (both over 20,000 mAh) delivered 55 percent of its rated capacity to a MacBook. That was still enough to completely recharge a MacBook battery with some left over, which is magnificent both for performance and by price and weight. But it’s not as much as you’d reckon by using rated numbers alone. I’ll get into this more with individual reviews.
Another factor with power is “speed”—in this case, that’s directly related to amperage. Because USB’s voltage is fixed at around 5V, you have to up the amps to move more power, which equates to moving power “faster.” Devices with larger batteries, like tablets or these large USB battery packs, need high-amperage chargers to refill them in any reasonable amount of time. You also need high amperage to charge a device faster than it’s depleting power if it’s in use while charging.
Originally, most USB packs maxed out with ports that could each pass power at about 1A, fast enough to charge a smartphone at full speed. But an iPad Air 2and iPad Pro can charge at 2.4A (and the Pro even faster with a higher-amperage adapter), and iPhones for years charge fine at 1A, but can bump up to as fast as 2.1A with an iPad charger.
Modern packs typically have ports that can be rated at 2.0A, 2.1A, or 2.4A; all the packs tested have at least one Type-A 2.4A port, and one USB-C 3A port. Modern packs also use USB and other signaling to provide as much power as a device can accept but no more, while mobiles and computers won’t accept more power than they can safely use. (USB packs’ ports default to 1A or lower if they can’t sort this out with an attached device.)
Faster only works to a point: For keeping their lives long, batteries should only be charged between about a 0.50 and 1.00 ratio of amperage to capacity, which is called its C rating. An iPhone with a 1,715 mAh battery charging at 1A has a 0.58C rating, considered “gentle” and which maximizes cycles. Charge it at 2.1A, and you’re well above 1C, but Apple appears to have factored in, as it allows charging at that high a rate. The USB power packs I tested charge at about 0.15C to 0.30C; future packs might work with higher-wattage cables and adapters for faster recharge rates.
Only the Talentcell provided guidance as to the number of cycles it expects for the pack to perform as expected: 500. As with all lithium-ion charging cycles, that typically refers to complete cycles, so depleting to 50 percent and charging to full counts as a half cycle.
Finally (whew!) each battery pack has a maximum combined output across all ports. The internal electrical circuitry divvies up charge by port, but also can’t exceed that total when charging through multiple ports at once, like multiple iPads and iPhones. For example, the Anker PowerCore+ 20100 can output 2.4A on its two Type-A ports and 3A on its USB-C ports. With all three ports in use, however, it maxes out at 6A, with no more than 2.4A to any port.