Google lets three enterprise cloud databases loose

Google lets three enterprise cloud databases loose

Google has made three new enterprise database offerings generally available, hoping to lure customers currently on Amazon Web Services and Microsoft’s Azure platforms over to its Compute Engine service.

The three offerings include the fully managed Cloud SQL Second Generation with MySQL instances, the Cloud Bigtable noSQL wide-column service with Apache HBase compability, and the Cloud Datastore, a scalable, NoSQL document database.

Pricing for Cloud SQL 2nd Generation starts at US$0.015 per hour for 0.6 gigabytes of memory, shared virtual processor, and maximum 3TB capacity for the smallest, db-f1-micro instance.

This goes up to US$2.012 per hour for the db-n-highmem-16 instance, with 16 VCPUs, 104GB of RAM and up to 10TB of storage. In addition, Google charges US$0.17 per GB and month for storage capacity, and US$0.08 per GB and month for backups.

Bigtable nodes cost US$0.65 per node and hour, with a minimum of three required per cluster. Each node can delivery up to 10,000 queries per second and 10 Mbps data transfers.

Storage for Bigtable on solid state disks is charged at US$0.17 per GB and month, with the hard drive equivalent service costing US$0.026 per GB and month. Australian customers pay US$0.19 per GB for up to 1TB of internet egress traffic, which drops to US$0.18/GB for 1 to 10TB, and US$0.15/GB for more than 10TB.

Cloud Datastore is free for up to 1GB of storage, 50,000/20,000/20,000 entity reads/writes/deletes, with additional charges once those limits are reached.

Customers wanting to run their own databases on the Google Compute Engine can now use Microsoft SQL Service images with built-in licenses. Business can also use their own, existing application licenses.

Google claimed that its Cloud SQL 2nd Gen database provides substantially better performance than Amazon’s RDS MSQL Multi-Availability Zone and RDS Aurora databases – up to 16 concurrent threads, as measured with the Sysbench benchmark.

Beyond 16 concurrent threads the AWS databases were slightly better than Cloud SQL 2nd Gen. In terms of transactions per second, Sysbench testing showed AWS Aurora to be the leader beyond 16 concurrent threads.

Some of the performance difference is due to design decisions for the databases: Google’s SQL 2nd Gen emphasises performance and allows for replication lag which can increase failover times albeit won’t put data at risk, Google said.

AWS Aurora, meanwhile, is designed with replication technology that exhibits minimal performance variation and consistent lag.

Google also said the Cloud SQL 2nd Gen replicated database had about half the end-to-end latency for single client threads compared to AWS RDS for MySQL Multi-Availability Zone, at 32.02ms – substantially better than the 70.12ms measured for AWS RDS Aurora.

Source:-.itnews.

Google lets three enterprise cloud databases loose

Google lets three enterprise cloud databases loose

Promises better performance than AWS.

Google has made three new enterprise database offerings generally available, hoping to lure customers currently on Amazon Web Services and Microsoft’s Azure platforms over to its Compute Engine service.

The three offerings include the fully managed Cloud SQL Second Generation with MySQL instances, the Cloud Bigtable noSQL wide-column service with Apache HBase compability, and the Cloud Datastore, a scalable, NoSQL document database.

Pricing for Cloud SQL 2nd Generation starts at US$0.015 per hour for 0.6 gigabytes of memory, shared virtual processor, and maximum 3TB capacity for the smallest, db-f1-micro instance.

This goes up to US$2.012 per hour for the db-n-highmem-16 instance, with 16 VCPUs, 104GB of RAM and up to 10TB of storage. In addition, Google charges US$0.17 per GB and month for storage capacity, and US$0.08 per GB and month for backups.

Bigtable nodes cost US$0.65 per node and hour, with a minimum of three required per cluster. Each node can delivery up to 10,000 queries per second and 10 Mbps data transfers.

Storage for Bigtable on solid state disks is charged at US$0.17 per GB and month, with the hard drive equivalent service costing US$0.026 per GB and month. Australian customers pay US$0.19 per GB for up to 1TB of internet egress traffic, which drops to US$0.18/GB for 1 to 10TB, and US$0.15/GB for more than 10TB.

Cloud Datastore is free for up to 1GB of storage, 50,000/20,000/20,000 entity reads/writes/deletes, with additional charges once those limits are reached.

Customers wanting to run their own databases on the Google Compute Engine can now use Microsoft SQL Service images with built-in licenses. Business can also use their own, existing application licenses.

Google claimed that its Cloud SQL 2nd Gen database provides substantially better performance than Amazon’s RDS MSQL Multi-Availability Zone and RDS Aurora databases – up to 16 concurrent threads, as measured with the Sysbench benchmark.

Beyond 16 concurrent threads the AWS databases were slightly better than Cloud SQL 2nd Gen. In terms of transactions per second, Sysbench testing showed AWS Aurora to be the leader beyond 16 concurrent threads.

Some of the performance difference is due to design decisions for the databases: Google’s SQL 2nd Gen emphasises performance and allows for replication lag which can increase failover times albeit won’t put data at risk, Google said.

AWS Aurora, meanwhile, is designed with replication technology that exhibits minimal performance variation and consistent lag.

Google also said the Cloud SQL 2nd Gen replicated database had about half the end-to-end latency for single client threads compared to AWS RDS for MySQL Multi-Availability Zone, at 32.02ms – substantially better than the 70.12ms measured for AWS RDS Aurora.

[“Source-itnews”]

How to Create WordPress MySQL Databases on cPanel

Filing room

This article is part of a series created in partnership with SiteGround. Thank you for supporting the partners who make SitePoint possible.

WordPress’ success owes much to its quick and simple five-minute installation procedure. Yet the MySQL database still causes confusion for many.

This tutorial describes how to create a database using cPanel, a popular platform management utility offered by many web hosts. We’ll also discuss how to use this database during a WordPress installation. The techniques can be used by any web application which requires MySQL.

Let’s start with the basics and terminology…

What is a Database?

A database is a collection of organized data. That’s it. WordPress stores all its page, post, category and user data in a database.

MySQL is a database management system (DBMS). It is software which allows you to create, update, read and delete data within a database. A single MySQL installation can manage any number of self-contained databases. You could have one for WordPress, another for Magento, and others for Drupal or whatever you need.

There are plenty of alternatives but MySQL became popular for several reasons:

  • it is free, open source software. It is now owned by Oracle but there are open MySQL-compatible options such as MariaDB.
  • it became synonymous with PHP – the web’s most-used language/runtime which powers WordPress. Both PHP and MySQL appeared in the mid-1990s when web development was in its infancy.
  • it adopts Structured Query Language (SQL) – a (fairly) standard language for creating data structures and data.
  • it is fast, simple to install and has many third-party development tools.

How do Applications Access a Database?

Applications such as WordPress access their data via a database connection. In the case of MySQL, WordPress’ PHP code can only establish a connection when it knows:

  • the address where MySQL is installed
  • the name of the database it needs to access
  • a user ID and password required to access that database

A database “user” account must be defined for WordPress use. It can have a very strong password and set appropriate database permissions.

How is Data Stored?

MySQL and other SQL databases store data in relational tables.

For example, you may have a set of article posts. Each post will have unique data, such as the title and body text. It will also have data used in other posts, such as the category and author details. Rather than repeat the same data again and again, we create separate tables:

  • an author table containing an ID, the author’s name and other details
  • category table containing an ID and the category name
  • post table containing the article title and body text. It would point to the author and category by referencing the associated ID number.

SQL databases implement safeguards to guarantee data integrity. You should not be able to reference an author ID which does not exist or delete a category used by one or more articles.

These table definitions and rules form a database schema. A set of SQL commands execute during WordPress installation to create this schema. Only then are the tables ready to store data.

How to Create a Database

Web hosts using cPanel provide a web address (such as https://site.com/cpanel), and a user ID and password to gain access. Keep these details safe. Do not confuse them with the database or WordPress user credentials!

If you’re looking for a host that supports cPanel, try SiteGround, our web host of choice. All plans support cPanel, and they’ve re-skinned the dashboard to organize everything in a more friendly way.

cPanel

You view may look a little different but locate the DATABASES section or enter “MySQL” in the search box.

Click the MySQL Database Wizard and follow the steps:

Step 1: Choose a Database Name

Your database requires a name:

create a database

The name may have a prefix applied, such as mysite_. Enter an appropriate name such as blog or wordpress and hit Next Step.

Step 2: Create a Database User

You must now define the MySQL user account which WordPress uses to access your database:

create database user

Note the user name may also have the same prefix applied (mysite_). In this screenshot, our user ID is mysite_blogDBuser.

cPanel will ensure you enter a strong password. The password can be complex; you will use it only once during WordPress installation. I recommend the random Password Generator:

password generator

Make sure you copy the user ID and password to a text file or another safe place before hitting Create User.

Step 3: Set the Database User Privileges

The user created above requires full access to the database during WordPress installation. It runs scripts to create tables and populate them with the initial data.

Check ALL PRIVLEGES then hit Next Step:

set database user privileges

cPanel will confirm creation of the MySQL database and user.

enter image description here

The MySQL Databases Panel

You can use the MySQL Databases panel instead of the wizard. It still allows you to create a database and user, but you then add that user to the database.

It also provides facilities to update, repair and delete databases and users.

How to Install WordPress

Your cPanel may provide WordPress and other application installers. It may not be necessary to follow the steps above because the script creates a database for you.

If manual installation is necessary or preferred, download WordPress and extract the files. You may be able to do this on your server via SSH but FTP/SFTP is also supported.

Open a browser and navigate to the domain/path where you copied WordPress, (i.e. http://mysite.com/). This starts the installation:

install WordPress

You must enter:

  • the MySQL Database Name created in step 1
  • the MySQL database Username created in step 2
  • the MySQL database user’s Password created in step 2
  • the Database Host. This is the address of the server where MySQL runs. It will often be localhost or 127.0.0.1 because MySQL is running on the same server where your site is hosted. Your host will advise you if this is different.

The Table Prefix adds a short string to the start of all table names. Change it when:

  1. You want to install many copies of WordPress which all point to the same database, and/or
  2. You want to make your installation a little more secure by making table names less obvious.

Hit Submit and WordPress will verify your credentials before continuing installation.

Create a WordPress User

WordPress prompts for the ID, password and email address of a WordPress administrator. This is someone responsible for managing WordPress. It is different to the MySQL database and cPanel credentials!

enter image description here

Hit Install WordPress and the dashboard will appear within a few seconds.

Bonus Security Step

We granted full permission to the database user for WordPress installation. You can downgrade these privileges after installation to improve security.

The following rights should be adequate:

  • SELECT
  • INSERT
  • UPDATE
  • DELETE
  • ALTER
  • CREATE TABLE
  • DROP TABLE
  • INDEX

Some plug-ins may need extra rights so enable ALL PRIVILEGES if you encounter problems.

[“Source-sitepoint”]

Attackers start wiping data from CouchDB and Hadoop databases

Data-wiping attacks have hit exposed Hadoop and CouchDB databases.

It was only a matter of time until ransomware groups that wiped data from thousands of MongoDB databases and Elasticsearch clusters started targeting other data storage technologies. Researchers are now observing similar destructive attacks hitting openly accessible Hadoop and CouchDB deployments.

Security researchers Victor Gevers and Niall Merrigan, who monitored the MongoDB and Elasticsearch attacks so far, have also started keeping track of the new Hadoop and CouchDB victims. The two have put together spreadsheets on Google Docs where they document the different attack signatures and messages left behind after data gets wiped from databases.

In the case of Hadoop, a framework used for distributed storage and processing of large data sets, the attacks observed so far can be described as vandalism.

That’s because the attackers don’t ask for payments to be made in exchange for returning the deleted data. Instead, their message instructs the Hadoop administrators to secure their deployments in the future.

According to Merrigan’s latest count, 126 Hadoop instances have been wiped so far. The number of victims is likely to increase because there are thousands of Hadoop deployments accessible from the internet — although it’s hard to say how many are vulnerable.

The attacks against MongoDB and Elasticsearch followed a similar pattern. The number of MongoDB victims jumped from hundreds to thousands in a matter of hours and to tens of thousands within a week. The latest count puts the number of wiped MongoDB databases at more than 34,000 and that of deleted Elasticsearch clusters at more than 4,600.

A group called Kraken0, responsible for most of the ransomware attacks against databases, is trying to sell its attack toolkit and a list of vulnerable MongoDB and Elasticsearch installations for the equivalent of US$500 in bitcoins.

The number of wiped CouchDB databases is also growing rapidly, reaching more than 400 so far. CouchDB is a NoSQL-style database platform similar to MongoDB.

Unlike the Hadoop vandalism, the CouchDB attacks are accompanied by ransom messages, with attackers asking for 0.1 bitcoins (around $100) to return the data. Victims are advised against paying because, in many of the MongoDB attacks, there was no evidence that attackers had actually copied the data before deleting it.

Researchers from Fidelis Cybersecurity have also observed the Hadoop attacks and have published a blog post with more details and recommendations on securing such deployments.

The destructive attacks against online database storage systems are not likely to stop soon because there are other technologies that have not yet been targeted and that might be similarly misconfigured and left unprotected on the internet by users.

 

 

[Source:- JW]